Thursday, January 16, 2020

Selection, Hardware and Software Requirements of a PLC

Understand the selection, hardware and software requirements of a PLC There are 3 types of PLC, unitary, modular and rack-mounted. A unitary PLC Is a stand alone unity, it has no room for expansion and works on Its own. They are useful for automating activities such as stress testing. For example the stress testing of a hoist, Instead of paying someone to manually control the hoists up and down movement leaving time In between each motion a PLC could be used Instead. It could be set up to perform a number of cycles of movement of the holst by the use of Ilmlt switches t the top and bottom of Its movement to detect when to change direction.The time to walt between movements can be set so that the motor doesn't get strained. Other safety features could be added, for example, a set of sensors could be installed around the hoist to stop it's movement if some one comes too close to it. It would also be easier to set the parameters of the test and change them easily for testing a different hoist or piece of equipment. It would have to keep its functionality to a small scale as it can't be upgraded at all. A large variety of inputs and outputs could be sed as most PLCs support analogue and digital.This would mean you could have temperature sensors in use on the analogue and through-beam sensors on digital. It is likely that this type of PLC would be mounted somewhere near the object it is controlling, most likely to a nearby wall. A modular PLC allows for other modules to be connected to it increasing its functionality such as position sensing, stepper and servo motion control and packaging and press controls. Where it may have only had the ability to handle a certain amount of functions adding more increases this. The two or more connect ogether and act as if they still Just one.This would be useful for a company that uses a greater amount automation than the above company, perhaps for a conveyor belt system that is wanted to be upgraded in the future and with modula rity more modules could be added to allow for the extension of the conveyor belt and the new Inputs and outputs that are required. For example a bottling company may only just fill bottles but not label them, they could extend the conveyor to allow for them to print and attach labels to the bottles as well which would require a lot more sensors o detect the location of the bottle and outputs for controlling the labelling machine.Individual parts of the PLC can also be swapped out such as the power supplies and CPU, Central Processing unit, handles the programming and Interpreted the Inputs/ outputs. A rack-mounted PLC is very similar to a modular PLC with the ablllty to upgrade and change different parts of it but they are on standard cards that slot into standard more can be fit into a cabinet due to their design to fit closely with similar units. They are most likely to be used on large assembly lines with a wide range of equipment in use simultaneously.They can be upgraded to all ow the line to run better with more memory and faster CPU to better work with the large amount of things happening. The racks with the PLCs in are likely to be kept either in the factory control room or their own individual room specifically for them. Cost is the most important aspect to selecting the right PLC and the lowest cost PLC is the unitary because it is as it is. It can't be modified in anyway they can get expensive though as the specifications increase.Next up is the modular PLC which can be quite large to allow it to be upgraded with more memory, faster CPU and greater power upply. The most expensive are the rack mounted PLCs. They are much smaller than the modular PLCs but still retain the ability to be upgraded allowing you to have more powerful PLCs in smaller space. A robotic arm inside a cell would need to perform the same task continuously and because of this a PLC could be used.Using a series of limit switches to control when the arm moves there wouldn't be a prob lem because it would be able to stop before hitting any obstructions that may be in the way. For example a series of optical sensors would be able to detect when the item to be manufactured as entered the ell and is in the correct position for the arm which would allow the arm to pick it up and perform what it had been programmed to do. Be it to spray paint on it or to add something onto it, because those motions do not need to be dynamic a single program would be enough to manage it.The software requirements could be quite large depending on the complexity of the task and the robotic arm If there are a lot of joints on the arm that are controlled by motors then the program will need to control each one independently and add to the fact the movements required then it is quite complex set of instructions the arm requires because of this it will need a large amount of memory and a fast CPU to execute the commands quickly as it is likely that the manufacturing cell is required to get t hrough a lot of items a day.This would most likely rule out the use of a unitary PLC because the cost would be too great for one with the required specifications. It is also likely that a large amount of robotic arms would be in use so a rack mounted system would be more space efficient, they do cost more than modular PLCs but keeping all the PLCs in cabinets near each other n a neat and organised manner can make it easier for any maintenance required on them. They would need to be near enough to a computer to program them and update software when necessary.The computer could be in a completely different room as a ethernet cable is used to load the new software into them but having one nearby would make it easier for any quick alterations to the software needed in the likely that the operator would use a proprietary piece of software to program the PLC with, if they were from Siemens they would be programmed in Ladder Logic. A PLC would be very useful for this type of activity becau se it is repetitive, the same item would be having the same thing done to it.A PLC controlled arm doesn't need breaks, if set up properly, so it could take the place of a human and thus save money. A problem though is that the item that comes into the cell could have a defect on it that wouldn't be noticed by the sensors in use so whatever the arm does may be done to something that needs to be scrapped. That is something a human worker would have noticed and would have thus saved money by not doing anything to it.The main benefit of having a PLC control it is that the Job is done autonomously and would be more cost effective than employing a human to do it but you lose out on the fact the human can see what they are doing and ensure that the item entering the cell is correct and make sure he does his Job completely before sending it out, if it was spraying they would be able to check the coat is even and well done by eye where you would not get that from a PLC.Stricter control furth er down the line would eliminate this though. Immediate costs would be expensive with a PLC solution, the obotic arms that are going to be controlled need to be bought, the PLCs need to be bought, mounted and wired, someone needs to write the software for them and then maintain their operation. That position would likely be a higher paid position than someone working on the assembly line.Those that do work on the assembly line do not have as high start up costs but the costs are continuous plus allowance for tools and equipment needed such as PPE. Which leads on to the potential cost each has. If a robotic arm breaks it could potentially lead to the whole line being stopped while it s repaired, both of which will cost time and money.If a worker was to not be wearing the required PPE or Just sustain an injury it could mean that the line has to stop although he would be quickly replaced to keep the line running. There is also a possibility that the person that was injured might file c laims against the company that could lead to a large loss of money. The expansion of what the PLC controlled could be very costly as it would require new equipment and wiring which could mean that parts of production need to be shut down for it to be laid.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Biography of Josiah Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood (ca July 12, 1730–January 3, 1795) was Englands foremost pottery manufacturer and a mass producer of quality ceramics exported around the globe. A member of his familys fourth generation of potters, Wedgwood started his own independent firm and became the Royal Potter for Queen Charlotte, the consort of King George III. Wedgwoods mastery of ceramic technology was matched by the marketing savvy and connections of his partner Thomas Bentley; together they ran the most famous pottery works in the world.   Fast Facts: Josiah Wedgwood Known For: Creator of the famous Wedgwood potteryBorn: July 12, 1730 (baptized), Churchyard, StaffordshireDied: January 3, 1795, Etruria Hall, StaffordshireEducation: Day School at Newcastle-under-Lyme, left at 9 years of ageCeramic Works: Jasper ware, Queens Ware, Wedgwood blueParents:  Thomas Wedgwood and Mary StringerSpouse: Sarah Wedgwood (1734–1815)Children: Susannah (1765–1817), John (1766–1844), Richard (1767–1768), Josiah (1769–1843), Thomas (1771–1805), Catherine (1774–1823), Sarah (1776–1856), and Mary Anne (1778–1786).   Early Life Josiah Wedgwood was baptized on July 12, 1730, the youngest of at least eleven children of Mary Stringer (1700–1766) and Thomas Wedgwood (1685–1739). The founding potter in the family was also called Thomas Wedgwood (1617–1679), who established a successful pottery works around 1657 at Churchyard, Staffordshire, where his great-great-grandchild Josiah was born.   Josiah Wedgwood had little formal education. He was nine years old when his father died, and he was taken from school and sent to work in the pottery for his eldest brother, (another) Thomas Wedgwood (1717–1773). At 11, Josiah had smallpox, which confined him to bed for two years and ended with permanent damage to his right knee. At the age of 14, he was formally apprenticed to his brother Thomas, but because he could not physically work the wheel, at 16 he had to quit.   Wedgwood teacup and saucer in the Waterford Wedgwood flagship store in London, England. The teacup features the white and blue jasper ware ceramic which is synonymous with the brand. Oli Scarff / Getty Images News Early Career At the age of 19, Josiah Wedgwood proposed that he be taken into his brothers business as a partner, but he was rejected. After a two-year position with the pottery firm of Harrison and Alders, in 1753, Wedgwood was offered a partnership with the Staffordshire firm of potter Thomas Whieldon; his contract stipulated that he would be able to experiment. Wedgwood stayed at the Whieldon pottery from 1754–1759, and he began experimenting with pastes and glazes. A primary focus was on improving creamware, the first commercial English ceramic invented in 1720 and widely used by the potters of the time.   Creamware was very flexible and could be decorated and over-glazed, but the surface was likely to craze or flake when subjected to temperature changes. It chipped readily, and the lead glazes broke down in combination with food acids, making them a source of food poisoning. Further, the application of the lead glaze was hazardous to the health of the workers in the factory. Wedgwoods version, eventually called queens ware, was slightly yellower, but had a finer texture, greater plasticity, less lead content—and it was lighter and stronger and less prone to break during shipments.   Thomas Bentley Partnership In 1759, Josiah leased Ivy House pottery in Burslem, Staffordshire, from one of his uncles, a factory which he would build and expand several times. In 1762, he built his second works, the Brick-House, alias the Bell Works at Burslem. That same year, he was introduced to Thomas Bentley, which would prove to be a fruitful partnership.   Wedgwood was innovative and had a strong technical understanding of ceramics: but he lacked formal education and social contacts. Bentley had a classical education, and he was socially connected to artists, scientists, merchants, and intellectuals in London and around the world. Best yet, Bentley had been a wholesale merchant in Liverpool for 23 years and had a broad understanding of the current and changing ceramic fashions of the day.  Ã‚   Josiah Wedgwoods Ivy and Etruria works in Staffordshire, England, ca. 1753. Oxford Science Archive / Print Collector / Getty Images Marriage and Family   On January 25, 1764, Wedgwood married his third cousin, Sarah Wedgwood (1734–1815) and they eventually had eight children, six of whom survived to adulthood:  Susannah (1765–1817), John (1766–1844), Richard (1767–1768), Josiah (1769–1843), Thomas (1771–1805), Catherine (1774–1823), Sarah (1776–1856), and Mary Anne (1778–1786).   Two sons, Josiah Jr. and Tom, were sent to school in Edinburgh and then privately tutored, although neither joined the business until Josiah was ready to retire in 1790. Susannah married Robert Darwin, and was the mother of the scientist Charles Darwin; Charles grandfather was scientist Erasmus Darwin, a friend of Josiahs. Ceramic Innovations Together, Wedgwood and Bentley created a huge variety of ceramic objects—Bentley keeping an eye to the demand, and Wedgwood responding with innovation. In addition to hundreds of types of tableware, their Staffordshire Etruria manufacturing facility produced specialty wares for grocers and butchers (weights and measures), dairies (milking pails, strainers, curd pots), sanitary purposes (tiles for indoor bathrooms and sewers all over England), and the home (lamps, baby feeders, food warmers).   Wedgwoods most popular wares were called jasper, an unglazed matte biscuit ware available in solid paste colors: green, lavender, sage, lilac, yellow, black, a pure white, and Wedgwood blue. Bas-relief sculptures were then added to the surface of the solid paste color, creating a cameo-like appearance.  He also developed black basalt, a stoneware in striking deep back colors. The Portland Vase (black and white jasper ware) that Wedgwood considered his finest work inside the Wedgwood Museum, in Stoke-on-Trent. Christopher Furlong / Getty Images The Art Market To answer what Bentley saw as a new demand in London for Etruscan and Greco-Roman art, Wedgwood made cameos, intaglios, plaques, beads, buttons, figurines, candlesticks, ewers, jugs, flower holders, vases, and medallions for furniture all decorated with classic art figures and themes. The canny Bentley recognized that original Greek and Roman nudes were too warm for English and American tastes, and the firm dressed their Greek goddesses in full-length gowns and their heroes in fig leaves.   Penelope and Maidens, Wedgwood plaque, 18th century. Illustration from Story of the British Nation, Volume III, by Walter Hutchinson, (London, c1920s). Hulton Archive / Getty Images The demand for cameo portraits skyrocketed and Wedgwood met it by hiring known artists to make models in wax for use on the production floor. Among them were Italian anatomist Anna Morandi Manzolini, Italian artist Vincenzo Pacetti, Scottish gem engraver James Tassie, British designer Lady Elizabeth Templeton, French sculptor Lewis Francis Roubiliac, and English painter George Stubbs.   Wedgwoods two main modelers were British: John Flaxman and William Hackwood. He sent Flaxman to Italy to set up a wax modeling studio between 1787–1794, and Wedgwood also set up a studio in Chelsea where artists in London could work.   George III and Queen Charlotte, modeled by William Hackwood after waxes by Isaac Gosset, 1776-1780, jasper, ormolu frames by Matthew Boulton. Public Domain (on display at Wedgwood Museum, Barlaston, Stoke-on-Trent, England) Queens Ware   Arguably, Wedgwood and Bentleys most successful coup was when they sent a gift set of hundreds of his cream-colored tableware to British King George IIIs consort, Queen Charlotte. She named Wedgwood Potter to Her Majesty in 1765; he renamed his cream-colored ware Queens ware.   Five years later, Wedgwood obtained a commission for a several-hundred piece tableware service from the Russian empress Catherine the Great, called the Husk service. It was followed up by the Frog service, a commission for Catherines  La Grenouilliere (frog marsh, Kekerekeksinsky in Russian) palace consisting of 952 pieces decorated with over 1,000 original paintings of the English countryside.   The Life of a Scientist   Wedgwoods classification as a scientist has been debated over the intervening centuries. Largely through his connection to Bentley, Wedgwood did become a member of the famous Lunar Society of Birmingham, which included James Watt, Joseph Priestly, and Erasmus Darwin, and he was elected into the Royal Society in 1783. He contributed papers to the Royal Societys Philosophical Transactions, three on his invention, the pyrometer, and two on ceramic chemistry.   The pyrometer was a tool made first of brass and then high-fired ceramic that allowed Wedgwood to determine the internal heat of a kiln. Wedgwood recognized that the application of heat shrinks clay, and the pyrometer was his attempt to measure that. Unfortunately, he never was able to calibrate the measurements to any scientific scale available at the time, and the subsequent centuries have found that Wedgwood was somewhat incorrect. It is a combination of heat and the length of kiln time that shrinks pottery in a measurable fashion. The showrooms of Wedgwood Byerley in St Jamess Square, London, 1809. Hulton Archive / Getty Images Retirement and Death   Wedgwood was often ill for much of his life; he had smallpox, his right leg was amputated in 1768, and he had trouble with his sight beginning in 1770. After his partner Thomas Bentley died in 1780, Wedgwood turned the management of the shop in London over to a nephew, Thomas Byerly. Nevertheless, he was a vigorous and active director of the Etruria and other manufactories up until his retirement in 1790. He left his company to his sons and retired to his mansion Etruria Hall. In late 1794, he fell ill—possibly with cancer—and died on January 3, 1795, at the age of 64.   Legacy   When Wedgwood began his work, Staffordshire was the home of several important ceramic manufacturers such as Josiah Spode and Thomas Minton. Wedgwood and Bentley made their company the most important of the Staffordshire potteries and arguably the best-known pottery in the western world. Etruria would run as a facility until the 1930s. Wedgwoods company remained independent until 1987, when it merged with Waterford Crystal, then with Royal Doulton. In July 2015, it was acquired by a Finnish consumer goods company. Selected Sources Born, Byron A. Josiah Wedgwoods Queensware. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 22.9 (1964): 289–99. Print.Burton, William. Josiah Wedgwood and His Pottery. London: Cassell and Company, 1922.McKendrick, Neil. Josiah Wedgwood and Factory Discipline. The Historical Journal 4.1 (1961): 30–55. Print.---. Josiah Wedgwood and Thomas Bentley: An Inventor-Entrepreneur Partnership in the Industrial Revolution. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 14 (1964): 1–33. Print.Meteyard, Eliza. The Life of Josiah Wedgwood: From His Private Correspondence and Family Papers with an Introductory Sketch of the Art of Pottery in England, two volumes. Hurst and Blackett, 1866.Schofield, Robert E. Josiah Wedgwood, Industrial Chemist. Chymia 5 (1959): 180–92. Print.Townsend, Horace. Lady Templetown and Josiah Wedgwood. Art Life 11.4 (1919): 186–92. Print.Wedgwood, Julia. The Personal Life of Josiah Wedgwood, the Potter. London: Macmillan and Company, 1915. Print .

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

How Should We Respond The Global Problem Of Immigration

How should we respond to the global problem of immigration? Immigration is the movement of people from their native country into another country in order to permanently settle and live there. Immigration is a phenomenon that is global and which has been growing rapidly. A survey done in 2012 found given an opportunity, 640 million people would migrate with 23 percent choosing the United States and 7 percent choosing the United Kingdom. The number of global migrants worldwide has increased over the years reaching 244 million migrants in 2015 which indicates a 32 percent increases since 2010. The United States of America has the largest number of migrants with 22 percent of the overall immigrants residing there. This figure has moved up†¦show more content†¦The rapid growth of immigrants poses a threat to the natives whereby with the growing demographic change, there is increased cultural diversity and their identity as a country keeps diluting the American culture with more i mmigrants moving into the country, it has become a multicultural place. It has created tension between the natives and the immigrants leading to racism, and negative reactions to immigrants by blaming them for everything and attacking them. It is challenging for the host country to assimilate immigrants into the society and provide the necessary support hence without assimilation, and this has led to increased dangers from foreigners. For example, a series of attacks in Germany in late July 2016 by foreigners, with a number of them having entered the country as refugees; fears have grown of terrorist crossing into countries among those immigrating (Robinson). The host country will experience rapid population growth which places a strain on the infrastructure and services such as health services and education in the country. For some of the immigrants, success in a new country is not guaranteed, and they are forced to take any job necessary usually the unskilled jobs and at very low wages. Others will end up unemployed and have to turn to crime this leads to increased crime rate and a higher level of insecurity in the country. The current immigration policy for the United States is very strict long and tedious and has led to aShow MoreRelatedThe Backbone Of Any Health Care1503 Words   |  7 Pagesto their recruitment to developed countries is a global health issue which has negative impacts on the citizens of developing countries. 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Monday, December 23, 2019

Animal Testing Should Be Banned Essay - 1238 Words

Every year in laboratories, hundreds, upon thousands, upon millions of animals are used, abused, plagued, diseased, and mercilessly killed for testing. On animals, people called, â€Å"vivisectors,† test loads of products, such as cosmetics, cleaning chemicals, medicines, warfare supplies, and pesticides on animals. The animals that are most commonly used are rabbits, guinea pigs,and mice, but they also tend to use other animals such as dogs, cats, cattle, swine, chickens, monkeys, reptiles, and many more. Each year inside British laboratories, nearly four million animals are experimented on. Every eight seconds, an animal dies. These animals are sentient beings, that can have emotions like fear, frustration, sadness, and loneliness. These†¦show more content†¦Also, the outcome of the product that has been tested on animals, may differ quite a bit, once it is actually put into action with humans. â€Å"Obvious and subtle differences between humans and animals in ter ms of our physiology, anatomy, and metabolism make it difficult to apply data derived from animal studies to human conditions.† (Matthews, American Anti-Vivisection Association) 92% of experimental drugs that are safe and effective in animals, fail in human clinical trials, because they are either too dangerous, or do not work. Simply because both of these hypotheses have been effectively proven true, there is no way to truly know whether or not we can trust any, much less all,of the medicines that have been tested on animals. We need to stop this, before it is too late. I personally believe that if we must test a product on animals, we should not use it. Besides, this process is cruel, useless, incompetent, foolish, unwanted, harmful to animal species, and unneeded. Why should we rip an animal’s rights from them, only to benefit us, especially if we do not have to, even more especially if it is not guaranteed work? It is cruel, useless, and just plain stupid to harm one species to, â€Å"help,† another. Think about it. Pretend for a moment that you are a vivisector, in one of America’s testing labs. What would do ifShow MoreRelatedShould Animal Testing Be Banned?844 Words   |  3 PagesShould animal testing be banned? Nowadays, a lot of animals has been tested on a range of experiments over the world. You could be supporting animal teasing cruelty without knowing it. Have you ever check if there’s animal testing on the cosmetics before you buy it? Today, a lot of cosmetics has been testing on helpless animals and there are about 1.4 million animals die each year from animal testing ( CatalanoJ, 1994). Most of the experiments that are completed in the laboratories are very cruelRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Be Banned880 Words   |  4 Pagesdepending on animals testing. Therefore, if people talk about laboratories, they should remember animal experiments. Those animals have the right to live, according to people who dislike the idea of doing testing on animals; the other opinion, supports the idea of animal testing as the important part of the source of what has reached medicine of the results and solutions for diseases prevalent in every time and place. Each year huge numbers of animals a re sacrificed for the science all these animals, whetherRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Be Banned776 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal Testing Should be Banned  ¨Over 100 million animals are burned, crippled, poisioned and abused in US labs every year ¨ ( ¨11 Facts About Animal Testing ¨). Imagine if that was someones animal getting tortured in labs just to test things such as beauty products and perfume. 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It is not necessary to subject animals to torturous conditions or painful experiments in theRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Not Be Banned1581 Words   |  7 PagesAnimal testing is being used by different organizations all over the world to prevent specific diseases, especially cancer. Americans see animal testing having a harmful effect but it is one of the main reasons why society has most cures for some illnesses. This topic is important because people need to know what goes on during animal testing and why it is very beneficial. Animal testing needs to be used to find all cures. Some ani mals such as chimps/ monkeys have 90% of the same DNA humans haveRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Not Be Banned1721 Words   |  7 Pages † Today, more animals are being used in experiments than ever before: around 100 million in the United States alone† (3). Animal testing is now an international issue, and it is becoming a major story. Currently, animals are often used in medical testing, make-up testing, and other consumer product testing. Animals used in such product testing are often abused and suffer from serious side-effects. Animal testing can be painful for the animals, testing results are usually not even useable forRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Be Banned1364 Words   |  6 Pagesbenefit. Using animals for these experimentations usually does not come to mind. Animals are often abused, suffer, and even die during laboratory testing for the benefits of people to make sure medications, household products, newest procedures, and cosmetics are safe and effective for human use. Humans have benefited from animal testing for years while these animals suffer consequences with no positive outcomes for themselves. Even if a product or procedure is deemed successful, these animals are frequentlyRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Be Banned Essay1632 Words   |  7 Pages Animal Testing Should Be Banned Throughout the decades, animals have been used in medical research to test the safety of cosmetics including makeup, hair products, soaps, perfume, and countless of other products. Animals have also been used to test antibiotics and other medicines to eliminate any potential risks that they could cause to humans. The number of animals worldwide that are used in laboratory experiments yearly exceeds 115 million animals. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Teens and Sex Education Free Essays

Teens and Sex Education | | |Home gt;gt;Teen Sexuality | |[pic] | | | |[pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic] | |Teen sex education, or teen sex ed, is important for helping teens to understand the changes in their bodies and in their | |relationships during the teenage years.Sex education helps teens make healthy choices about relationships and sex. | |Sex education for teens should start well before the teenage years. We will write a custom essay sample on Teens and Sex Education or any similar topic only for you Order Now Starting early, parents should have age-appropriate | |discussions with their children about love, relationships, values, and sex. It is appropriate to give children and teens honest, | |clear answers when they ask questions about their bodies or about relationships. For young children these answers do not need to | |be graphic, but should be straightforward. |If parents make sex education an open, ongoing discussion with their child, by the time the child is a teen he or she will feel | |more comfortable asking his or her parents questions about sex and the changes brought about by sexual development in the teen | |years.Parental opinion is one of the most important factors teens use to make decisions about sex. If parents have not educated | |their teens about sex, or discourage questions from their teens, the teens will get more of their sex education from friends and | |the media, which are not reliable sources. |Teens do learn about sex from television, movies, music, and magazines; those teens who were exposed to sex through any of these | |media when young are more likely to begin having sex at an early age. The need to correct the false impressions teens may get | |from the media about sex is an important reason that teens should get sex education from their parents. | |Sex education conducted through schools or religious groups can also help to correct the misinformed and sometimes deceptive sex | |education teens get from the media and from friends.Some types of sex education presented by schools or religious organizations | |for children and teens might include: | |Good touch-bad touch talks for elementary students, teaching them that they have the right to be safe from inappropriate physical| |contact, and that they should respect this right in others. | |Basic descriptions of the reproductive system, usually presented in middle school, before puberty, to pre-teens separated by | |gender. |Discussions of human sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, and types of birth control, including abstinence, usually | |presented to teens in high school sex education courses. | |Value-based, age-appropriate discussions about relationships and sexuality offered by religious groups. | |These sex education classes generally require parental approval before the child or teen can participate, and give parents | |another opportunity to discuss relationships and values with their children or teens.Schools, religious groups, and community | |organizations may also offer advice or written materials to help parents talk to their teens about sex. | |Some parents are afraid that teen sex education encourages their teens to have sex. A recent study in Texas, however, found that | |teens who took a two week sex education class became more interested in waiting until after high school to have sex; before the | |class 84 percent of the teens wanted to wait, and after the class 87 percent were planning on waiting. Also, before the class 60 | |percent of the teens said they wanted to wait until marriage to have sex, and after the class 71 percent were planning on | |abstaining until marriage. | |The likelihood that teens will have sex is also reduced if they watch less than 2 hours of television on school nights, attend | |religious services, and come from a family with both parents. | |Parents, whether married or single, are still the strongest influence on the choices their teens make about sex. By being | |involved in their teens’ sex education, parents can help their teens develop healthy attitudes about love and sex. | How to cite Teens and Sex Education, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Comparison of Two Countries Using

Question: Discuss about theComparison of Two Countries Using Hofstede for Target. Answer: Introduction Power can be defined as the ability of a person to influence others in the organization. This mainly refers to the capacity of the person to affect the ways by which his subordinates behave in an organization. This is mainly related to an exchange relationship that deals with the transactions that occur between the agents and the targets. The agent is referred to a person who uses this power and the target is the person who is on the receiving end of the power (Bakir et al 2016). Change implementation can be influenced by the power of the managers that they are able to exert on the subordinates. The managers in this case can also be termed as change agents and they mainly facilitate the strategic transformation of an organization. The most important quality of a change agent is power. The leaders or the managers need to show their power and use it in the right manner to implement the change in the organizations successfully. The power that is used by the managers needs to be of the right type so that the employees comply with the instructions that are given to them (Beugelsdijk et al. 2015). The perspectives of power can be defined as the different contrasting and incompatible concepts related to power. The three dimensions of power are mainly, subjective and objective power, power as influence, power as ability and power-to and power-over. The perspectives of power are considered to be useful for the organization. The essay will be based on the analysis of the different types of power that can be used by the managers of the organization to implement any strategy or bring a change in the processes. The Hofstede model will be used to compare the cultures that are followed in the organizations in Australia and Singapore. Analysis of Hofstede Model As discussed by, Brouthers et al. (2016), the Hofstedes cultural dimension framework is mainly related to cross-cultural communication and this theory has been developed by Geert Hofstede. This describes the ways by which the culture followed in a particular society can affect the values of the members. The relation of these values to the behaviour of the members of that society is derived from the factor analysis process. The original framework developed by Hofstede depicted four major dimensions which could help in the analysis of the cultural values which includes, individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity. This theory is mainly used in the research related international management, cross-cultural psychology and cross-cultural communication. The Hofstede analysis is mainly used for the purpose of identifying the differences between the national cultures of the countries. The differences between the cultures and the values of differen t countries can be analysed by using the Hofstede model (Clinton 2017). The index of the six dimensions of Hofstede model determines the differences in the cultures that are followed in the countries. The six major components of the Hofstede model are, 1st dimension Power Distance Power distance is mainly related to the inequality of power between the supervisors and the subordinates. 2nd dimension Uncertainty avoidance This dimension is related to the extent up to which the members of a particular society are able to cope with the uncertainty that can occur in the future. 3rd dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism This dimension is related to the level up to which the individuals in the society are interested in the formation of groups. 4th dimension Masculinity vs. Femininity This dimension is related to the distribution of the emotional roles between the different genders. 5th dimension Long-term vs. short term orientation This dimension is based on the orientation of the individuals towards a particular long-term or short-term goal. 6th dimension Indulgence vs. restraint This dimension in mainly based on the happiness level of a particular society (Marieke 2015). Sources of power The five different sources power are as follows, Coercive Power Coercive power is mainly derived from the ability of the person to influence others with the help of threats, sanctions or punishments. This power is therefore related to the ability of the person to fire, punish or reprimand the other employees or subordinates of the organizations. This helps in controlling the behaviour of the employees in the company. Reward Power This power is related to the ability of the person to affect the allocation of the incentives of the organization. These incentives consist of increments of salary, promotions and performance appraisals. Reward power can be used to motivate the employees so that they improve their performance (Lauren, Mathieu and Kukenberger 2016). Legitimate Power Legitimate power is derived from a person who holds a position in the hierarchy of an organization. This type of power can also be termed as positional power. The positional power of legitimate power can be exercised efficiently only if the person has earned the power in a legitimate manner. Expert Power This type of power is related to the expertise or knowledge that is derived from a particular area. The skilled people are high value in the organization and they are also known for their skills related to problem-solving (Jane and Ragins 2017). Referent Power This power is derived from the interpersonal relationships that the people create with the others in the organization. These people possess the referent power when the others have respect for them. This type of power arises from the charisma of the person and ways by which he influences other people in the organization. Referent power can also be derived from the personal connections, trust and the respect among people. The personal relationships of the people help them in generating the power over others. Application of Hofstede model to change management Power Distance Index (PDI) As discussed by, Martin, Evanschitzky and Gilliland (2016), Power Distance Index is related to the degree of inequality of the power between the employees of the organization. Singapore has a high Power Distance Index or PDI which depicts that it deals with many levels of hierarchical power distribution. The society of Australia has low PDI which means that the hierarchical levels in the organizations of this country are low. Change implementation is tougher in organizations with high PDI that is Singapore as compared to the Australia which has low PDI. The reason being that the high PDI organizations have many levels hierarchy which leads to longer time taken for decision-making. In case of a country with high PDI like Singapore legitimate power will prove to be the most useful as many hierarchies are present in the different decision-making levels. On the other hand, for the country with low PDI like Australia rewards power is much more useful the levels of hierarchy are less (Dezhu, Yew-Kwang and Lian 2015). Individualism Vs. Collectivism According to, Handley, Sean and Angst (2015), the degree of individualism in the Australian society is high and it has received a score of 90 in the analysis. The Australian culture is Individualist in nature and the citizens are self-reliant. The degree of individualism is low and it has received a score of 20 in the analysis. The concept of We is important in the society of Singapore and this depicts the highly collectivist culture of Singapore. The people belonging to a certain group are always loyal with each other. The type of power which is suitable for the highly individualist culture like Australia is expert power and the reason is that the knowledge of the individuals in the society can influence others. The power that is suitable for a highly collectivist society like Singapore is the referent power as the interpersonal relationships between the members of the group are good and they are loyal to each other. The change management process will be easier in case of a collectivist society as the members of the society are related to each other and will be able to understand the benefits of change. On the other hand, the change implementation will be difficult in case of a highly individualist society as each of the individuals are interested in their own benefits. Masculinity Vs. Femininity As discussed by, Karlsson et al. (2018), the score of Singapore in this dimension is 48 and this depicts the levels of competition in the society are low. The society is more feminine in nature and it is mainly driven by the values and the ways by which the individuals care for each other. The score of Australia in this dimension is 61 and this depicts that the Australian society is more masculine in nature and the it is drive more by the competition as compared to the values and care that the individuals have for each other. The power that is suitable for a highly masculine society like Australia is the reward power as the high levels of competition in the society will encourage them in competing with each other for rewards. On the other hand, referent power is suitable for a highly feminine society like Singapore as the importance of values in the society will help them in developing interpersonal relationships (Sykes et al. 2014). The change implementat ion process needs to be different for both types of society. In case of a highly masculine society where competition is high the managers of the organizations need to educate the employees about the benefits of the change for the individuals. On the other hand, in case of a society with high values the change needs to be useful for the entire society. Uncertainty Avoidance Index According to, Riadh, Souiden and Choi (2015), the score of Singapore in the uncertainty avoidance index is 8, which is considered to be low. This depicts that the society of Singapore and the individuals are not able to avoid the stress related to the uncertainty that can occur in the future. On the other hand, Australia scores 51 in this dimension which much higher than Singapore. This score depicts that the individuals of this society are able to deal with the changes or the uncertainty that can occur in the future. The power which is suitable for a society with low index of uncertainty is coercive power as the individuals in the society cannot deal with the changes and they need to be sometimes compelled to accept the changes with the help of punishments. The power that is suitable for a society with the high uncertainty index is the legitimate power which will help in instructing the employees to adapt to the changes. The process of change implementat ion will be the toughest for a society with low uncertainty index (Sturm, Rachel and Antonakis 2015). Change can be easily implemented in a society which has low uncertainty index as the individuals are ready to accept change. Long-term Vs. Short term The score of Singapore in the long-term orientation is 72 and that of Australia is 21. This depicts that the society of Singapore deals with long-term goals and the society of Australia mainly deals with short-term goals. The power suitable for Singapore will be referent power and that for Australia will be rewards power. The change implementation will be easier for a society with high long-term score as compared to that with a low long-term score (Mazanec et al. 2015). Indulgence Vs. Restraint The indulgence score of Australia is 71 and that of Singapore is 46. This score depicts that the individuals of the society of Singapore are not able to control their impulses easily as compared to that of the individuals of the Australian society. The referent power is suitable for a society with a low score in indulgence and expert power is suitable for a society with a low score in indulgence. The implementation of change will be easier for a society where the indulgence level is low as compared to a society where the indulgence level is high (Lourdes and Medina 2017). Conclusion The analysis of Singapore based on the Hofstedes cultural dimensions have depicted that change implementation is not easy in the country. Singapore has received a low score in the dimensions like, individualism, masculinity, avoidance of uncertainty and indulgence. This has made the process of change implementation quite tough. The individuals in the society are not able to control their impulses and emotions and this can lead to many issues in the organizations and the changes that are implemented in the organizations. The low importance given to competition in the market is another issue in the society and this can be solved by increasing the levels of competition and further improving their performance so that they can fulfil their duties. Recommendations The masculinity index of the country can be increased by increasing the levels of competition in the market. The degree of indulgence can be reduced by making the citizens of the country more concerned about their own careers rather being impulsive about the decisions that they take regarding their organizations based on impulse. The power distance index in the company can be reduced by changing the organizational structure of the company and reducing hierarchical levels. References Bakir, Aysen, Jeffrey G. Blodgett, Scott J. Vitell, and Gregory M. Rose. "A preliminary investigation of the reliability and validity of Hofstedes cross cultural dimensions." InProceedings of the 2000 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, pp. 226-232. Springer, Cham, 2015. Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd, Robbert Maseland, and Andr Hoorn. "Are scores on Hofstede's dimensions of national culture stable over time? A cohort analysis."Global Strategy Journal5, no. 3 (2015): 223-240. Brouthers, Lance Eliot, Victor B. Marshall, and Dawn L. Keig. "Solving the single-country sample problem in cultural distance studies."Journal of International Business Studies47, no. 4 (2016): 471-479. Clinton, J. Robert.The making of a leader: Recognizing the lessons and stages of leadership development. Two Words Publishing, LLC, 2017. DInnocenzo, Lauren, John E. Mathieu, and Michael R. Kukenberger. "A meta-analysis of different forms of shared leadershipteam performance relations."Journal of Management42, no. 7 (2016): 1964-1991. De Mooij, Marieke. 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"A cross-country comparison and validation of firms stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices."Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society(2018). Ladhari, Riadh, Nizar Souiden, and Yong-Hoon Choi. "Culture change and globalization: The unresolved debate between cross-national and cross-cultural classifications."Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)23, no. 3 (2015): 235-245. Mazanec, Josef A., John C. Crotts, Dogan Gursoy, and Lu Lu. "Homogeneity versus heterogeneity of cultural values: An item-response theoretical approach applying Hofstede's cultural dimensions in a single nation."Tourism Management48 (2015): 299-304. Munduate, Lourdes, and Francisco J. Medina. "10 How Does Power Affect Those Who Have It and Those Who Dont? Power Inside Organizations."An introduction to work and organizational psychology: An international perspective(2017): 176. Sturm, Rachel E., and John Antonakis. "Interpersonal power: A review, critique, and research agenda."Journal of Management41, no. 1 (2015): 136-163. Sykes, Tracy Ann, Viswanath Venkatesh, and Jonathan L. Johnson. "Enterprise system implementation and employee job performance: Understanding the role of advice networks."MIS quarterly38, no. 1 (2014). Ye, Dezhu, Yew-Kwang Ng, and Yujun Lian. "Culture and happiness."Social indicators research123, no. 2 (2015): 519-547.

Friday, November 29, 2019

A Comparison Of Night Walker And Roselily Essays - Fiction

A Comparison Of Night Walker And Roselily Essays - Fiction A Comparison of Night Walker and Roselily Brent Staples' Night Walker and Alice Walker's Roselily both present a glimpse into the world view of African-American culture through human characters set in ironic situations. The tone of Roselily is one of sardonic condemnation, whereas the tone of Night Walker is one of melancholy and anger in the face of alienation. Both deal with victimization, Night Walker's being derived from being mistaken for a criminal, and Roselily's dealing with the confines of a traditional marriage and the anxieties which result. Walker and Staples' stories hold an unusual irony as the perceived innocent are victims, and the perceived aggressors are the persecuted. Walker makes use of many descriptive images from the young woman who begins, "...dragging herself across the world."(P 335) to the "...crush of well-wishing people..." Each paragraph is anchored to the marriage by a preceding verse from a traditional marriage ceremony. Staples' descriptive images, though more contemporary in time, rely upon heavy contrast to sharply underscore his points. For instance describing, "...a relatively affluent neighborhood in an otherwise mean, impoverished section of Chicago." Morgan Glines English AP April 12, 1997